DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT 37 the thermometer inserted, and the apparatus weighed again. The melting-point of the phenol must now he ascertained. Warm the metal over a small flame on a sand-bath so as to melt the phenol, leaving, however, a few crystals floating in the liquid, and place the vessel in the cylinder, at the bottom of which is a wire spring or pad of cotton wool. A perforated cork at the top keeps the stem of the thermometer in position. Let the phenol cool down well below its freezing-point, and then shake the cylinder until solidification commences. This will give a first approximation to the freezing- point. The -phenol is now warmed gently as before until only a few crystals remain unmelted. The vessel is replaced in the cylinder and the liquid cooled 0*5° to i° below the point previously ascer- tained. It is now shaken until crystallisation sets in, and then occasionally until the maximum point is reached. The operation is repeated as often as requisite. The substance is now introduced, a sufficient quantity being taken to produce a depres- sion of at least 0*5°. In order to effect this the phenol is melted and the neck warmed with a small flame until the thermometer is loosened and can be withdrawn. As much phenol as possible is allowed to drain off the neck and off the ther- mometer, and the weighed quantity of substance introduced. The thermometer is replaced, and any phenol which may have run out is wiped off from the outside of the vessel, which is then re-weighed. The freezing-point is determined as before. The Ebullioscopic or Boiling-point Method (Raoult).—The boiling-point of a liquid is found to be affected by the presence of a dissolved substance in a similar manner to the freezing-point, that is, the boiling-point of a given quantity of a liquid is raised the same number of degrees by dissolving in it the same number of molecules of different substances, or, in other words, such weights of these substances as represent the ratio of their molecular weights. These facts were first clearly demonstrated by Raoult. Statical Method.—The most convenient form of apparatus for determining molecular weight by this method is Beckmann's boiling-point apparatus shown in Fig. 32. FIG. 31.